A Mid May Night Dreams

May is almost over as well as its humidity and cool weather. You should get your bikini and sundress ready because summer is around the corner! For those who live in Europe, America, and East Asia, you can enjoy the sun and tan after hiding behind a warm blanket these past months. However, people who live in a tropical country like I do cannot feel the summer sun. But, we still can enjoy the sun like those who live in subtropical countries because we have the sun for six whole months in this dry season.

How can you enjoy the sun here? Well, if you live near a beach, you can easily go there wearing your bikini and a big straw hat then have your tan. There is no better view than sea, wave, and surfers. “But I don’t live near any beach. How should I enjoy this dry season?” you say. If you have that case, you may read this article because I will discuss about enjoying this dry season as if it’s summer for those who live far away from a beach.

To make you feel the summer vibe, you need to pull out your best short dress from your closet. But, you should be careful in choosing the short dress because you don’t want to look like you will go to a club wearing it. Therefore, you have to choose a short dress which is not too tight and sexy as in revealing every part of your body. A chiffon mid-thigh dress with open-shoulder cut and soft colors such as mauve, cream, and pale yellow can be your choice. This dress will give you a Coachella vibe with its cut, model, and materials. You may also add exotic bracelets and wear gladiator sandals to complete your look.

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If you don’t have any short dress, short shorts and short skirts can be your savior by combining it with a crop top, a halter top, a tank top, or a vest. The crop top is well suited with short shorts while a halter top is better combined with short skirt. A colorful rope necklace and bracelet as well as sport shoes, glasses, and a hat will complement your outfit. It’s better to choose bright color for your clothes because it doesn’t absorb the heat. Also, remember to wear a cotton or chiffon materials so that your body can breathe properly under the sun.

Another option is that you can wear a lace tank top with short shorts combined with a necklace, a flower crown, and crisscross wedge sandals. This outfit is also great to wear to a concert or a festival due to its casual and cool look.

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If you want to rock a more girly and retro look, you can wear a turquoise skirt along with a crop flower pattern shirt. For the accessories, you can wear the colorful rope necklace and plaited bracelets. Gladiator sandals, flats, or caged sandals may be the perfect choice for your feet in this outfit.

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Now, you can rock the summer look in a dry season along with a glass of fruit punch in the way. So, what is your preferred outfit for the summer (or dry season)? You can post a comment to share your thought below. If you like this post, feel free to click the star button. Thank you and later, babies! XOXO AR.

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Bob Away Your Long Hair

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Bob Hairstyle

Ever confused about what you have to do with your hairstyle? Doubting to cut your long hair because you’ve kept it long for years? Too lazy to search for new hairstyle? Or, terrified to experiment it? Fear not because I am here to give you a new idea about hairstyle. Actually, it’s not really new because you can find it easily on the internet but in case you need someone to push you doing it, well, that’s why I write this article.

As you may notice from the image above, I will discuss about Bob hairstyle which is still ‘in’ this year. Many hairstylists say that this style will keep on sailing for some years due to its practicality, fresh look, and varieties. ELLE UK and Marie Claire have declared that 2017, bob will be around with lob as its sister. Those two magazines list some celebrities who have this haircut and give their opinion of which is the best from them all. To be honest, those celebrities can pull any haircut and style off because, hey, let’s not be kidding, they have the best hairdresser and hairstylist. Meanwhile, we have only ourselves, friends, and family to be asked for opinion.

However, I’d like to tell you to not be afraid in getting your hair cut. Especially when it’s bob. Bob haircut has been developing into varied styles, starting from classic bob (the one Dora and Cleopatra have), asymmetric bob (the one in the picture), pixie-style bob, and, the newest one, lob. Lob is actually an acronym for Long Bob. So, it’s a bob but it’s a longer cut than a bob. Usually, the cut passes your shoulders a few inches for lob. But, still, it’s a bob. Here is the example of a lob.

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Lob Hairstyle

So, basically, if you have a bob, it will turn out to be lob months later.

Although bob is a trend today, I know many of you still doubt whether you have to cut it out or not. The first problem is usually your face. You’re afraid whether this haircut will make you look fat, especially to those who have a round face. Don’t be afraid my friends because bob will not make you look fatter if you choose the right length. For a round face like me, shoulder length bob is the best option for it can conceal your chubby cheeks and make you look younger and cooler. You may also add a little volume or curl your hair a bit to make it more alive. Avoid bangs because bangs are not suitable for our chubby cheeks. It will only make your face look rounder than before. I have experienced it myself which results in me pinning my bangs all the time. Not so cool.

The second problem, and the last, is your image. Many still think that bob can only make you look mature because of its independent and business woman style. However, bob can also make you look younger, fresh, and cooler depends on what style you choose.

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Korean Bob Style

Ever seen those Korean artists in the high school drama they play? To make them appear younger, they usually choose bangs or bob or both of them as their hairstyles so that people who watch believe that they are ten times younger than their actual age. Just like the picture above, bob can make you look cute and young if you cut it in lines with your chin. You may also add layers here and there so that the bob will have more texture.

Finally, bob can be wear by any woman. Bob now is not only an image of independent and business women but also an image of young and cool girls. Take a look at those celebrities who pull bob haircut off with the cool and young chick vibe. Emma Watson, Lily Collins, and Dakota Johnson are the perfect example. Therefore, don’t be afraid to cut your hair into bob anymore. Try to discuss it with your hairdresser if you think you find the perfect cut because they have the best opinion for you. That’s it for today. Later, babies! XOXO AR.

Raising the (un)Popular Sexual and Socio-Political Issues in Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover

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Since the narrative is the only available discourse to be analyzed directly, this essay is aimed at analyzing how the narrative structure of Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover is related to the economic system of socio-political issue constructed in and around the novel. Through the classical and frequently use of past tense narrative, this novel tries to raise the (un)popular topics of England in 1920s right after World War I: 1) woman’s body and sexuality and 2) the change from old England to a newer one.

Although the whole novel uses what Genette calls as subsequent narration, the narrator talks in present tense at the very beginning of the text which serves as an introductory to give a sense of time and condition of the narrative for the reader.

Ours is essentially a tragic age, so we refuse to take it tragically. The cataclysm has happened, we are among the ruins, we start to build up new little habitats, to have new little hopes. It is rather hard work: there is now no smooth road into the future; but we go round, or scramble, over the obstacles. We’ve got to live, no matter how many skies have fallen (2010: 7).

Here, the narrator has not taken a focus to a certain character in the novel so that it has zero focalization. In addition, the use of present tense makes the narrator have a control to the reader so that he can assume and place the reader into a certain time which serves as the time the narrator tells the story (erzhälte Zeit)—or, as Genette says, a story time. After presenting the time, the narrator, then, shifts his focus to Constance Chatterley in the next paragraph: “This was more or less Constance Chatterley’s position. The war had brought the roof down over her head. And she had realized that one must live and learn” (7). This shift not only results in the change of focus to Connie but also changes present tense into past tense for the rest of the novel. Genette says that a change into present tense sometimes happens in a subsequent narration either at the beginning or at the end of a narrative (1980: 220). These changes mark how the text moves from zero focalization into internal focalization through Connie’s eyes.

Although the narrator is still in the level of extradiegetic-heterodiegetic, this shift into internal focalization allows the reader to know more about what Connie thinks about every event in the story. However, the internal focalization according to Genette makes a restriction to certain fields whose impact is to the “completeness of information” (1988: 74) due to the limit vision. This strategy is employed in the text to place the reader in Lady Chatterley’s shoes because many of the events are presented from her view, such as when the narrator tells an event when Clifford’s friends come to their house:

Yes, she sat there! She had to sit mum. She had to be quiet as a mouse, not to interfere with the immensely important speculations of these highly-mental gentlemen. But she had to be there. They didn’t get on so well without her; their ideas didn’t flow so freely. Clifford was much more hedgy and nervous, he got cold feet much quicker in Connie’s absence, and the talk didn’t run (37).

Thee extradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrator and internal focalization techniques may also invoke the use of free indirect discourse in which the boundary between objective and subjective narrator becomes blur. From the passage above, it seems that the narrator gives an objective view of the event at hand. Nevertheless, if we pay attention to the order of the sentences, the narrator actually presents Connie’s assumption about the men and Clifford. The first sentence is indeed objective because the narrator puts his camera to describe Connie’s gesture (sat). Yet, the second, third, and fourth sentences is starting to show the shift between objective view into subjective one which is Connie’s view. The addition of modal verb (had to) which is to present necessity and behavioral verb (sit mum, be quiet as a mouse) make the passage shift from objective to semi subjective because narrator begins to enter Connie’s thought about the event. Then, in the fifth and sixth sentence, it seems that the narrator sees through a ghost’s eyes because he can say what the men think about her absence. Nonetheless, these sentences are not descriptive sentences but more like feeling because the narrator sees it through Connie’s subjective opinion about the men and the event. Therefore, those sentences are more likely subjective view of the narrator through Connie about the event rather than an objective view. Due to the previous sentences as well as the first sentence of the passage which present the descriptive narration of every character in the story, however, this passage seems to show the objective view of the event when they are read together. I see that this technique can strategically manipulate the structure so that the subjectivity contained in the passage is disguised as an objectivity to the reader. In this case, the text tries to present the other point of view which is usually not presented or avoided in other texts: her story. This point of view is shown mostly through Connie’s thought.

The narrative which focuses on Connie’s thought and experience along with the classical past tense narrative make the text seem to explore a new path which is woman’s sexuality by using a common device to be discussed in the novel. Through her point of view, we are shown how Connie explicitly describes about her sexual affair with Mellors and her feelings about it. Unlike Bradbury’s Rates of Exchange which vaguely tells the sex between Katya and Petworth, this novel shows Connie’s affair with Mellors in detail. The text uses interior monologue mainly through Connie’s eyes especially to describe how Connie realizes about the desire she has towards Mellors’ body. Connie realizes about her desire when she senses a shook in her womb and in the middle of her body seeing Mellors who is having a bath. She describes Mellors’ body as “a certain beauty of a pure creature. Not the stuff of beauty, not even the body of beauty, but a lambency, the warm, white flame of a single life, revealing itself in contours that one might touch: a body!” (67). This passage seems to convey a feminine consciousness of one’s sexuality, in this case Connie’s sexuality. In chapter 7, the narrator even shows Connie who is observing his body after that event:

When Connie went up to her bedroom she did what she had not done for a long time: took of all her clothes and looked at herself naked in the huge mirror. She did not know what she was looking for, or at, very definitely, yet she moved the lamp till it shone full on her.

And she thought, as she had thought so often, what a frail, easily hurt, rather pathetic thing a human body is, naked; somehow a little unfinished, incomplete! (70)

These paragraphs present Connie’s thought about her naked body which she finally realizes it after a long time. She thinks that a human body is “a little unfinished [and] incomplete” but her thought is based on what she sees of her body. From this passage, the text uses interior monologue to explain Connie’s feeling of her body’s incompleteness. At first glance, this passage appears to be giving a feminine thought about desire, body, and sex because of its technique which uses an internal focalization through a woman’s eyes. However, Millett argues that the novel exploits a feminine consciousness as a strategy to convey its masculine message (239).

In her analysis of Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley, Millett writes in her book entitled Sexual Politics (2000) that “Lawrence is the most talented and fervid of sexual politicians” (239). She argues that every sexual scene is written according to what Sigmund Freud calls as “female is passive, male is active” because Connie is always passive in every sexual intercourse with Mellors and she likes it. Moreover, the glorification of “the phallus” which is addressed to Mellors by Connie as “big”, “dark and cocksure”, “proud”, and “lordly” makes Millett thinks that the novel is actually programed for social as well as sexual redemption that modern men should gain their domination of women’s sexuality and psychology just like that of the middle ages (242).

However, Millett only focuses on the sexual politics described in the text which is happened between Connie and Mellors in concluding about the novel’s strategy to present its thought about modern man at that time. The novel indeed presents internal focalization through Connie’s eyes more often which makes it strategically put the implied reader in Connie’s shoes so that s/he will have the same view as Connie’s. On the other hand, the change of Clifford’s occupation from writer into the boss of Tevershall colliery and the image of the wood, Wragby Hall and Tevershall village are also other issues invoked in the novel. These two issues raise other socio-political problem which the novel tries to show along with the sexual affair between Connie, Clifford, and Mellors. Therefore, this novel not only presents sexual politics between Connie, Clifford, and Mellors but also presents the gradual change of England into an industrial-capitalist country which is shown in the book through the reliving of Tevershall Coal mine.

Genette says that in the literal (re)production of reality, free indirect discourse is “mimetically intermediate” (1988: 56). Thus, the picture of people in Tevershall village and Wragby Hall can be seen as the representation of Lawrence’s society at that time. Adipurwawidjana, Amalia, and Manggong argue that the Connie and Clifford’s world is “a metonymy of Lawrence’s world” which makes the narrative becomes a document to indicate the social change in England (2005: 63). The image of Tevershall village is mostly described by Mrs. Bolton. In my opinion, Mrs. Bolton is an important character who connects Wragby Hall to Tevershall village and changes Clifford into an indtustrial-capitalist. Before hiring her, Wragby Hall is separated from Tevershall village because Wragby Hall is quite distant from Tevershall Hall which is located over the hill. In addition, the park gates which surrounds Wragby Hall is literally a border separating Tevershall village’s world and Wragby Hall’s world. In the chapter 5, Clifford tells Connie that the wood in Wragby Hall is “the old England, the heart of it; and I intend to keep it intact” (44). If I take Genette’s opinion about the (re)production of reality and Adipurwawidjana and friends’ argument about the metonymy, Wragby Hall which has been there since the eighteenth century can be seen as the image of old England and Travershall village as the new England. Therefore, the arrival of Mrs. Bolton who is from from Travershall village at Wragby Hall also indicates the arrival of new England into old England. She gradually gains intimate relationship with Clifford and gives him a picture about Tevershall people which then makes him change his occupation from literally writing into the boss of Tevershall colliery.

If we see from the previous issue about the sexual politics in the novel which is presented by Connie and Mellors’ sexual affair, the issue of old and new England presented by Wragby Hall and Tevershall village and the reliving of Tevershall colliery seems to be a different issue which does not relate with the previous one. However, the relationship between Clifford-Connie, Connie-Mellors, Clifford-Mellors, and Clifford-Mrs. Bolton is the crosscut which is resulted from the criss-cross of those two issues. Just like Connie-Mellors relationship, Clifford-Mrs. Bolton relationship is based on Mrs. Bolton’s thought of a real gentleman and believe that all men are just “bab[ies] with a queer temper” (99). However, Clifford-Mrs. Bolton relationship is different with that of Connie-Mellors relationship although, if I can borrow Millett’s comment, both women are fascinated by the phallus of each man. In Clifford-Mrs. Bolton relationship, Mrs. Bolton already has knowledge about upper class men and their ego because of her previous experience as a helper. In addition, she has knowledge that her husband is died in the Tevershall colliery which is owned by Clifford because Clifford does not give any interest in running the colliery. Therefore, she deliberately gives all the control to Clifford especially the control of winning games such as piquet, bezique, and chess and teaching her language and typing. Yet, the control she gives to Clifford does not make her a completely passive woman just like Millett’s argument about Connie-Mellors relationship. Mrs. Bolton indirectly controls their relationship through the intimacy they have by telling him about the life outside Wragby Hall and how people from Tevershall begin to move from Tevershall colliery to Stacks Gate colliery. Mrs. Bolton can change Clifford who is previously anxious about his inability and hides it behind his occupation as a writer into a more confident man who owns Tevershall colliery and its people. The text even describes her as a woman who has “that queer sort of bossiness, endless assertion of her own will, which is one of the signs of insanity in modern woman” (97). This description, however, gives a negativity about the characteristic of modern woman in Mrs. Bolton. Millett argues that Lawrence always makes female attached with the adjective “queer” presumably “to persuade the reader that woman is a dim prehistoric creature operating out of primeval impulse” (243). The addition of the adjective “queer” and the noun “insanity” which are described as Mrs. Bolton’s traits makes the question whether the novel does exploit feminine consciousness to conceal its masculinity is raised again. Moreover, a question of the novel’s perspective about the socio-political issue regarding old and new England also surfaces. The ambiguity of the novel’s standpoint, therefore, marks the transition of pre-World War I world into modern world (post-World War I) which is presented in the novel by the employed techniques and the raised issues. These questions, then, lead to the main theme of this research which is the novel’s effort to raise the (un)popular topics. The issues about the transition of old England to new England may be seen as the popular topic of literature at that time because the topic is also found in Elliot’s writings. Meanwhile, the unpopular topic—which is actually not quite unpopular because Hardy also raises the same issue—is about the woman’s sexuality and the detail description of woman’s body which is regarded as pornography by English people at that time. This novel is claimed as a racy book by the English people and banned for 32 years due to its explicit scenes and harsh language which make the novel is regarded to be raising the unpopular topics at that time.

 

 

Bibliography

 

Adipurwawidjana, Ari J, Lien Amalia and Lestari Manggong. “Ambivalensi Naratif dan Transisi Sosial.” Dewanto, Nirwan. Kalam 22. Jakarta: Yayasan Kalam, 2005. 55-79. Journal.

Genette, Gerard. Narrative Discourse Revisited. New York: Cornell University Press, 1988.

—. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. New York: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Lawrence, D.H. Lady Chatterley’s Lover. London: Arcturus Publishing Limited, 2010.

Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

 

In Quest(ion) of Indentity

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The ambiguous identity of Antigua—an independent country or a(n) (ex)colony of West Imperialism—is presented in Kincaid’s A Small Place to criticize West Imperialism. Here, the book uses every element of narrative strategy to question as well as attack West Imperialism through tourism.  Through the eye of second person point of view (“you”), we are led by the tour guide (the narrator) to see Antigua both in tourist’s and native’s perspectives. Then, in the second chapter, the narrator shows herself as “I” when she tries to trace back the history of Antigua. These multi-level of narration provide a small place in the novel to tell the untold story of postcolonialism in Antigua. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the narrative strategy of the book to question Antigua’s identity and criticize West Imperialism.

Even though Antigua has gained its independence from British Empire, Kincaid’s book shows that Antigua’s substructure is still based on British rules or white people’s rules, especially in describing Antigua’s tourism. In emphasizing this problem, the book focuses on the cynical tone and what Genette called as author’s metalepses written along the text. Throughout the chapters, the text continuously shifts the narrative level by directly addressing the reader with the word “you”—who is assumed as a white tourist who comes to Antigua. However, a tourist is regarded as “an ugly human being” by the book because “when you become a tourist […] it will never occur to you that the people who inhabit the place in which you have just paused cannot stand you” (14). A tourist is regarded as an ego-centric man who runs away from their boring lifestyle to become fascinated by another man’s banality. The second shift is by using the first person (“I”) who acts as a tour guide and the native explaining Antigua in a different perspective to the tourist (“you”). This second shift starts to present in the second chapter in which the narrator explains “the Antigua that [she] knew [and] grew up is not the Antigua you, a tourist, would see now” because the British Empire has destroyed the people and the land they colonized (24). Thus, even though they are no longer ruled Antigua, the effect of their colonialization is still attached in the country. White people still dominate Antigua both in superstructure and substructure so Antigua’s independence seems to be the same as when they were colonized by British Empire.

This situation can also be addressed to what happens in Bali. Many tourists come to Bali every year to enjoy the sun and the ‘unique’ lifestyle of the Balinese people. Their culture becomes a commodity to white people and the main source of economy to Bali’s government. Here, their culture and Antigua’s culture are no longer natural because they are purposely presenting their lifestyle to make an exchange value. This phenomenon also raises a question whether what Balinese people show to their tourists and what tourists think of Bali are their identity or it is a mere commerce of government to get symbolic value.

Back to the analysis of Kincaid’s A Small Place, the transition of the narrative level and the cynical tone directed to the reader “entreat the intervention of the reader” (Genette 1983: 234) or, in other words, provoke the reader to “realize that his or her ideological position as tourist, no matter how sensitive or benevolent he or she may try to be, is an inherently false and self-deluded position” (McLeod 2008: 89). The consistency of addressing and characterizing the reader is the book’s effort to criticize West Imperialism which happens in Antigua.

The book also shows its criticism through the ambiguity of its genre. In the first, we are brought to seemingly a tour of Antigua which later we know as a parody of a guide book we found in every tourism website. The narrator describes Antigua and its tourism different from what white people build in their mind. As a tour guide, the narrator takes the reader to some parts of Antigua which are never seen by many tourists. Riding a dangerous taxi, they pass the dusty Pigott’s School, the untrusted Holberton Hospital and a damaged library before finally arriving in the hotel located in a bourgeois area lived by drug smugglers and corrupt leaders. These contradictory realities which are not described in the previous media are “a special extra-generic or inter-generic world” provided by parody (1983: 59). It ignites consciousness and opens criticism to white people and West Imperiallism.

However, as Bakhtin argues in his essay, parody as a genre creates a distance between reality and fiction which is not what the book tries to achieve. Thus, this book inserts some Antigua’s histories and narrator’s experiences to make a sense of authenticity. Thus, many people regard this book as an autobiography or an essay written by Kincaid to criticize West Imperialism which makes Antigua’s identity questionable. Nevertheless, McLeod argues that this book contains many genres including autobiography, parody, essay, travel literature, and fiction. The ambiguity of its genre “reflects the complexities and challenges faced in defining a postcolonial nation” (2008: 78). These complexities present the uncertainty of Antigua’s identity due to British colonialization and West Imperialism in Antigua’s economy. On one hand, Antigua has gained its freedom yet, on the other hand, the center of its economy is relied on the arrival of tourists (especially from Europe and North America) to Antigua.

Race problem is also presented in the text as another strategy to raise question about Antigua’s identity. Although the book seems to directly state its side when describing white people—intruders, smugglers, corruptors, colonizers—and black people—native Antiguan, poor people, servants, noblemen—the book writes that “once you throw off your master’s yoke, you are no longer human rubbish, you are just a human being” and black Antiguan is also just a human being for they are free and no longer a slave (80). It is as if the book finally accept that Antigua consists of cultural hybridity that “by mingling the old and new, these identities conflate different cultural traditions into a dynamically original mixed culture” (Soto Crespo 2002: 345). Yet, McLeod argues that Kincaid still problematizes race in Antigua because it is connected to its independence from British Empire or white colonizers (2008: 86). Meanwhile, I think Kincaid still questions Antigua’s identity until the last chapter because the book still uses autobiographical narrator although the intensity is decreased. The narrator opens some possibilities to the reader although at the same time she still provokes the reader about her argument of what reader thought as the real Antiguans are “the people who really think of themselves as Antiguans […] are the descendants of those noble and exalted people, the slaves” (80). Thus, the narrator concludes that although white people can “throw off [their] master’s yoke” and no longer a rubbish, Antigua is a homeland of black Antiguan who shares the same painful history and the same struggle to gain freedom as a human being from white colonizers.

The paper, finally, approaches the relevancy of its title, “In Quest(ion) of Identity,” which is not only questioning Antigua’s identity as an independent country or a colony of West Imperialism, but also is a quest to construct Antigua’s identity as an independent nation. A nation which is free from West Imperialism or its colonizer. A nation where black Antiguan people can be a human being. What I am trying to say is that the book tries to build Antigua’s identity as a nation with “a large scale of solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one has made in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future” (Renan 1990: 19).

 

Bibliography

Bakhtin, M. (1996). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Genette, G. (1983). Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. New York: Cornell University Press.

Kincaid, J. (n.d.). A Small Place. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

McLeod, C. (2008). Constructing a Nation: Jamaica Kincaid’s A Small Place. Small Axe 25, 77-92.

Renan, E. (1990). What is a Nation? In H. Bhabha, Nation and Narration (pp. 8-22). London: Routledge.

 

Bebas Visa sebagai Produk Budaya Diplomasi Indonesia-Australia

Pada bulan Oktober tahun 1947, Australia membantu Indonesia dalam mengatasi sengketa Indonesia-Belanda. Bantuan yang diberikan Australia ini memberi dampak baik pada hubungan Indonesia-Australia sekarang karena Indonesia dan Australia terus membangun hubungan bilateral yang saling menguntungkan. Selain itu, lokasi kedua negara yang cukup dekat menjadi salah satu faktor Indonesia dan Australia menjalin kerja sama baik itu dalam hal ekonomi, politik, ataupun hukum. Dalam hal ekonomi, sektor yang paling banyak mendatangkan profit untuk Indonesia adalah sektor pariwisata. Australia merupakan salah satu negara yang menjadi wisatawan terbesar yang mengunjungi Indonesia, terutama Bali. Bali menjadi tempat berlibur dan rumah kedua bagi warga Australia selama bertahun-tahun meskipun warga Australia sempat tidak berani datang ke Bali setelah peristiwa Bom Bali yang menewaskan banyak wisatawan asing. Akan tetapi, warga Australia kemudian berdamai dengan peristiwa kelam tersebut dan membangkitkan kembali sektor pariwisata Indonesia yang sempat memburut akibat peristiwa itu. Oleh sebab itu, pemerintah Indonesia gencar meningkatkan dan mempromosikan fasilitas pariwisata mereka dengan cara mengeluarkan kebijakan tertentu, pertukaran pelajar, ataupun studi banding untuk menggaet wisatawan Australia lebih banyak lagi dari tahun ke tahun.

Pada bulan Maret 2016, Presiden Joko Widodo menerbitkan dan meresmikan Peraturan Presiden Nomor 21 tahun 2016 yang membahas fasilitas bebas visa kunjungan bagi turis asing ke Indonesia untuk meningkatkan sektor pariwisata. Australia adalah salah satu dari 169 negara yang termasuk ke dalam daftar negara dengan bebas visa kunjungan ke Indonesia. Kebijakan ini kemudian ramai diberitakan di masyarakat Australia karena Australia merupakan salah satu negara dengan wisatawan terbanyak yang mengunjungi Indonesia untuk berlibur dan penyumbang terbesar untuk pemasukan dalam sektor pariwisata. Akan tetapi, kebijakan bebas visa untuk wisatawan Australia ini berulang kali terhambat pelaksanaannya. Seperti yang dilansir News Corp Australia Network, pemerintah Indonesia mencoret Australia dari daftar negara dengan bebas visa kunjungan sebanyak dua kali pada tahun 2015 karena masalah eksekusi mati terpidana narkoba (Bali Nine) sebelum akhirnya diloloskan di tahun berikutnya. News menyebutkan bahwa Australia dicoret dari daftar tersebut karena perdebatan antara pemerintah Indonesia dan Australia mengenai Bali Nine semakin memanas dan tidak menghasilkan titik temu. News juga memberitakan bahwa negara ketiga penyumbang sektor pariwisata terbesar bagi Indonesia ini dicoret dari daftar pada bulan Maret 2015 karena pemerintah pemerintah Australia menolak permintaan Indonesia yang bersikukuh ingin Australia mempermudah sistem regulasi visa bagi warga Indonesia. Menurut News, Indonesia harus membanyar sebanyak $135 untuk visa berlibur dan melengkapi dokumen-dokumen sebanyak 15 halaman jika ingin berkunjung ke Australia. Wisatawan Australia, di lain sisi, hanya perlu membayar $50 (US$35) saja saat berlibur ke Indonesia.

Namun demikian, pada bulan Februari 2016, Indonesia kembali mencantumkan Australia ke dalam daftar negara dengan bebas visa kunjungan setelah pemerintah Australia akhirnya memberi keringanan dengan memberlakukan “three-year multiple entry visa” dan aplikasi kelengkapan dokumen dalam jaringan yang mempermudah dalam pendaftaran visa. Oleh sebab itu, Indonesia akhirnya meloloskan Australia menjadi salah satu negara yang mendapatkan bebas visa berkunjung selama 30 hari pada bulan Maret 2016. Meskipun kebijakan ini sempat dipertanyakan oleh wisatawan Australia karena mereka masih dipungut biaya saat mendatangi Bali, Cindy Lugten, kordinator dan humas Bali.com, mengatakan bahwa kebijakan ini memerlukan waktu untuk sampai ke telinga semua masyarakat Indonesia, seperti yang dilansir oleh News. Selain itu, News juga mewawancarai Kementrian Luar Negeri dan Perdagangan Australia soal ketidakjelasan ini dan mendapatkan jawaban bahwa memang kebijakan tersebut belum ditentukan kapan akan berlakunya tapi sudah dapat dipastikan akan terjadi.

Dilihat dari cara pemberitaannya mengenai kebijakan bebas visa kunjungan bagi Australia, saya berpendapat bahwa media daring Australia ini mendukung pemerintah Indonesia untuk memberikan bebas visa berkunjung bagi warga Australia. Dukungan ini diberikan dengan tujuan agar hubungan bilateral Indonesia-Australia dalam sektor pariwisata dapat saling menguntungkan. News berulang kali dalam keempat arikelnya, terutama dalam artikel “Bali holidays about to get cheaper for Aussie traveler,” memberikan suara lebih pada pemerintah Indonesia mengenai kebijakan tersebut bahkan ketika kebijakan tersebut dua kali terhambat. Dalam artikel tersebut, pemerintah Indonesia diberikan suara untuk menjelaskan isu bebas visa dan keuntungan apa saja yang bisa didapat kedua negara. Media daring tersebut juga memilih untuk menghindari penjelasan lebih lanjut mengenai Bali Nine sebagai salah satu alasan terhambatnya kebijakan tersebut dan lebih menjelaskan secara rinci tentang permintaan Indonesia agar syarat visa berkunjung ke Australia dipermudah oleh pemerintah Australia. Penghilangan satu isu dan penyorotan isu lain ini menurut saya dalam bidang jurnalistik dapat disebut dengan keberpihakan teks terhadap satu sisi, yaitu Indonesia. Namun demikan, News juga tidak mencantumkan secara detail alasan pemerintah Australia menolak permohonan pemerintah Indonesia yang kemungkinan bisa berakibat pada pembaca berita tersebut yang sebagian besar adalah masyarakat Australia kehilangan simpati pada artikel yang mereka buat karena dipandang bersebrangan dengan pemerintah Australia. Media daring tersebut hanya memberikan suara untuk pihak-pihak terkait untuk berbicara mengenai keuntungan bilateral yang didapatkan kedua belah pihak jika keduanya bisa bernegosiasi. Dalam salah satu artikel yang membahas masuknya Australia ke dalam daftar negara bebas visa lagi untuk tahun 2016, media tersebut memberikan suara penuh pada Margy Osmond, CEO Forum Pariwisata dan Transportasi, yang menjelaskan manfaat apa saja yang didapatkan Australia jika Australia mau bernegosiasi dengan Indonesia mengenai pelonggaran visa untuk masyarakat Indonesia.

Di lain sisi, media tersebut tidak memberikan suara pada masyarakat Australia untuk menanggapi berita tersebut meskipun media daring tersebut merupakan media yang berbasis dan dikelola oleh masyarakat Australia. Ketiadaan tanggapan masyarakat Australia dan sudut pandang mereka membuat artikel tersebut berfokus hanya pada bagaimana proses kebijakan tersebut terjadi dan apa yang akan terjadi jika kebijakan itu disetujui. Namun demikian, fokus bahasan ini, menurut saya, menjadi alat komunikasi yang digunakan media tersebut kepada masyarakat Australia untuk memberi sudut pandang baru mengenai kebijakan bebas visa yang akhirnya disetujui di tahun 2016 setelah adanya negosiasi antar negara. Dalam artikel berjudul “Bali holidays about to get cheaper for Aussie traveler,” News menjabarkan keuntungan apa saja yang akan Australia dapatkan setelah akhirnya menyetujui hasil negosiasi sistem visa dengan pemerintah Indonesia. Akan tetapi, jika dilihat dari pemilihan kata pada judulnya, News terlihat ragu bahwa kebijakan bebas visa akan lolos. Keraguan ini diberikan alasannya pada klausa “after two false starts” yang ditampilkan pertama kali dalam teks.

Selain itu, perspektif News terhadap berita ini cenderung berusaha untuk terlihat netral dari luar dan menguntungkan kedua negara walaupun News berusaha untuk meyakinkan pemerintah dan rakyat Austraia untuk menjalin kerja sama pariwisata dengan Indonesia. Media daring ini melihat usaha diplomasi yang dilakukan Indonesia terhadap Australia ini harus disambut baik oleh pemerintah Australia karena Indonesia merupakan negara terdekat yang prospek wisatawannya tinggi. Dengan memasukkan pendapat Margy Osmond yang memberikan hasil risetnya, News mencoba membangun argumen bahwa bebas visa kunjungan ke Indonesia ini harus disambut dengan pelonggaran peraturan sistem visa dari pihak Australia.

Berdasarkan penelitian terhadap pembahasan bebas visa kunjungan bagi Australia oleh News Corp Australia Network, saya menyimpulkan bahwa media daring Australia ini berusaha untuk menghaluskan citra Indonesia dan Australia agar hubungan diplomasi mereka, terutama di bidang pariwisata, tetap berjalan dan saling menguntungkan di masa depan. News hanya memberikan suara pada orang-orang terkait mengenai pandangan mereka terhadap kebijakan bebas visa tersebut. Ketidakhadiran suara masyarakat Australia untuk menanggapi kebijakan tersebut mungin saja digunakan untuk menghindari adanya permasalahan lebih lanjut mengenai kebijakan yang akan menguntungkan masyarakat Australia ini. Selain itu, penghindaran masalah Bali Nine yang menjadi salah satu faktor diplomasi ini hampir gagal tidak dijelaskan lebih lanjut oleh artikel tersebut. Artikel daring itu hanya memberikan pernyataan dari Julie Bishop bahwa alasan tersebut tidak benar. News memberikan pandangan mereka terhadap hubungan diplomasi Indonesia dan Australia dengan menghadirkan lebih banyak segi positif mengenai sektor pariwisata kedua negara yang saling menguntungkan jika kebijakan ini lolos. Penelitian-penelitian berupa presentase profit yang didapatkan dan jumlah wisatawan yang datang yang dilakukan lembaga pariwisata Australia dan lembaga resmi pariwisata Bali menjadi faktor yang selalu ditekankan dan direpetisi oleh artikel tersebut. Oleh sebab itu, saya berpendapat bahwa News berusaha membangun diplomasi pada masyarakat Australia dan Indonesia dengan mengeluarkan artikel yang menguntungkan kedua belah pihak sehingga kebijakan dan permintaan yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk pemerintah Australia mendapatkan dukungan dari pemerintah dan masyarakat Australia.

 

Referensi

 

Ironside, R. (2015, September 27). Indonesia again Backflips on Promise to Scrap Visa Fees for Australian Travelers to Bali. Diakses tanggal 24 Oktober 2016, dari News Corp Australia Network: http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-updates/indonesia-again-backflips-on-promise-to-scrap-visa-fees-for-australian-travellers-to-bali/news-story/d0b2f14b2926403eb31f125b98488de9).

Ironside, R. (2016, Maret 23). Aussie Tourists Celebrate Free Entry to Bali, but the Rollout has so far been Haphazard. Diakses tanggal 24 Oktober 2016, dari News Corp Australia Network: http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-updates/aussie-tourists-celebrate-free-entry-to-bali-but-the-rollout-has-so-far-been-haphazhard/news-story/2a202014785787b8895c5e130f035a32

Ironside, R. (2016, Februari 4). Bali Holidays about to Get Cheaper for Aussie Traveller. Diakses tanggal 24 Oktober 2016, dari News Corp Australia Network: http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-updates/bali-holidays-about-to-get-cheaper-for-aussie-travellers/news-story/272730d225f47f214151bbb8af54eee5

Law, J. (2015, Maret 17). Indonesia Srikes Australia from List of Visa-Free Countries. Diakses tanggal 24 Oktober 2016, dari News Corp Australia Network: http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-advice/money/indonesia-strikes-australia-from-list-of-visafree-countries/news-story/e01b3c81abb335e7f0fd3563eaaaaaf4

Yudha, H. S. (2016, Maret 22). 169 Negara Resmi Dibebaskan dari Visa untuk Kunjungan ke Indonesia. Diakses tanggal 24 Oktober 2016, dari Direktorat Jenderal Imigrasi Kementrian Hukum dan HAM Republik Indonesia: http://www.imigrasi.go.id/index.php/berita/berita-utama/996-169-negara-resmi-dibebaskan-dari-visa-untuk-kunjungan-ke-indonesia